Article on Antibody Levels and Response to management of Candida Albicans, 1988


A research project looking at antibody responses to exposure to antigenic (antibody generating) material led to a human study of the response to Candida albicans Yeast.  The study was conducted in 1988 and resulted in a paper “Human Serum Immunoglobulin G, A, M levels in Low Grade Chronic Candidiasis”. The paper was not acceptedby a number of established journals of the time and we published the article in a new journal, Journal of Advancement in Medicine, which was not on Pubmed.  Here is a copy of the article. The study shows a positive correlation with increased level of antibody to yeast and response to therapy with oral Nystatin, an antifungal that is not absorbed out of the GI tract.

The article is informative about the various responses of IgG, IgA and IgM to a common antigen. A number of conditions are now identified by using antibody responses to a immune challenge. For example, a response to an immunization with Strep pneumonia is is a commonly used test of immune function.

Guilford 1988 Candida Antibodies


Slide Presentation for AAEM Fall 2014Conference

On October 23-26 I visited Albuquerque with a great view of the city and the hot air balloons dotting the horizon early in the morning.  I presented information about mold toxins and how they decrease the function of the enzymes that make glutathione resulting in a decrease in glutathione. These toxins are fat soluble, so they find their way into cells to cause problems. The basis of the information  I presented comes from an article published in 2014 titled “Deficient Glutathione in the Pathophysiology of Mycotoxin-Related Illness” and is available online, just click the link. The history of finding out how the loss of these enzymes was found is reviewed in the paper and is interesting as presence of the mold toxins should increase glutathione, but a deficit was found.

This is a very important topic because the loss of expression of the glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL) has been found in other conditions including chronic astham and HIV disease. The loss of the enzymes controlling GCL (called the modifier unit or GCLM) is discussed in the paper “Glutathione supplementation improves macrophage functions in HIV“. The abstract for this article is on line. Contact me for information about the whole article. The article discusses the pathways depicted in the presentation slides. You can find out more about the role of glutathione in the innate immune cells ( antigen presenting cells and neutrophils) in the following articles, which are available online: “Characterization of Dendritic Cell and Regulatory T Cell Functions against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection” and “An Elucidation of Neutrophil Functions against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection“.

The slide presentation: Glutathione depletion by mold toxins and other causes  AAEM Fall 2014 Mycotoxin 


Yeast and Gastrointestinal Inflammation

I have been treating problems related to allergies and mold sensitivity for over 30 years.

About 25 years ago, I helped write an article on antibody responses to Candida albicans yeast in individuals with inflammation from yeast in the gastrointestinal tract. In that article we showed that individuals with the highest antibody response (suggesting the most inflammation) had the most dramatic responses to treatment with Nystatin, an antifungal that is not absorbed out of the gastrointestinal tract. This concept was not widely accepted at that time and we could not get the study accepted in the scientific journals of that time. We published the article in the Journal of Advancement in Medicine, which was sponsored by the American College of Advancement in Medicine. The article was reviewed but was not listed in Pubmed. I have a copy of the article available if anyone wants to read it. You can drop me a note at [email protected] and request “Candida article” and I will forward it to you.

It is interesting to note that more recent studies shows that a high level of Candida colonization occurs with diseases of the gastrointestinal (GI)l tract such as gastritis and colitis. It is thought that the GI tract is an important source of Candida as this organism does not have a significant environmental reservoir. Candida is almost always found associated with mammals such as humans in the GI tract (1). The Kumamoto article shows that yeast colonization in the GI tract is both caused by chronic mucosal inflammation and is a source of inflammation in the GI tract. The article concludes that high-level Candida colonization is frequently observed in ulcer and Irritable bowel diseases. The study also showed that in a mouse model of bowel inflammation that it was difficult to colonized the GI tract with Candida until a course of antibiotic was given(1). A study looking at the effects of Candida albicans in both humans and animal studies suggests that probiotic and even antifungal therapy should be considered in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (2).

In regard to Candida albicans colonization and inflammation in the GI tract, my approach is to use probiotics and nutrients that interfere with yeast metabolism like caprylic acid and garlic. caprylic acid has been shown to inhibit yeast growth (3). We can also use immunotherapy (allergy testing) and oral drops as described in the August 10, 2012 section of this blog.

Finally, if antifungal therapy is going to be considered, it seems logical to start with Nystatin an antifungal that is not absorbed out of GI tract. This is the approach that I used in the article about Candida albicans in 1988.

1. Kumamoto CA. Inflammation and gastrointestinal Candida colonization. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2011;14(4):386-91. PMCID: 3163673.
2. Zwolinska-Wcislo M, Brzozowski T, Budak A, Kwiecien S, Sliwowski Z, Drozdowicz D, et al. Effect of Candida colonization on human ulcerative colitis and the healing of inflammatory changes of the colon in the experimental model of colitis ulcerosa. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009;60(1):107-18.
3. Takahashi M, Inoue S, Hayama K, Ninomiya K, Abe S. [Inhibition of Candida mycelia growth by a medium chain fatty acids, capric acid in vitoro and its therapeutic efficacy in murine oral candidiasis]. Med Mycol J. 2012;53(4):255-61.